Keep pets in airconditioning if at all possible in the heat of summer.  If pets are to be kept outside, provide shade.  A baby pool in the shade is a welcome
sight to those dogs that love water, like labs.  Water bottles that have been frozen are coolants for the beds

Don't forget to refresh water daily, as water can become quite hot in the sun.

Watch for heat exhaustion:  heavy panting with lathered saliva;  bright red gums,  colapse and coma.  Revive with cool water all over body from 15 min -
1 hour, especially on chest and head.  Transport to vet when body temperature reaches below 104 and animal is revived.  Normal temperature should
read 100.4-102.4.  Do not feed dog until fully recovered.

Remember that dogs sweat from their mouth, so if it is necessary to use a muzzle, dogs cannot sweat.

A good way to tell if the weather is too hot for your pets, is when it is too hot for you.
In temperatures below zero, please bring your pets inside.  If this is impossible a nice dog house, shed, barn or some kind of shelter is adequate.  Provide
pets with hay for warmth and it is also a great wind breaker.

Don't forget their water.  Small buckets freeze fast.  Pour hot water in buckets to melt ice and to provide warmer water than ice cold.  This is also true for
ranch animals, such as horses and cows, etc.
1.  Wipe thermometer clean with alcohol.
2.  Shake the mercury down as far as you're able.
3.  Coat the end of thermometer with Vaseline to ease insertion.
4.  Insert the termometer one inch into the rectum for one minute.
         DOG                   CAT                    HORSE                    COW                   SHEEP
TEMPERATURE    99.5-102.2     100.5-102.5             99-101                  100-102                 101-104

PULSE per min       110-120            130-140                60-80                    100-150                   80-120     (young)
                   60-120            100-120                30-50                      40-60                     70-80      (adult)

RESPIRATION        20-25             20-30                    14-15                      30-60                     12-20     (young)
per minute                 14-16              20-40                     9-10                       12-16                    15-40     (adult)
For small animals -
at the femoral artery on inside of thigh (inside leg where leg meets body - middle.
Large animals - Facial artery where it crosses the jawbone near the neck.
A breath or full respiration is one inhalation, one exhalation.  Count the animals breaths by watching its chest wall move in and out.
Anti-freeze is commonly drunk by animals because of its sweet taste.
Within one to two hours of ingesting a toxic dose, the animal will show gastrointestinal and central nervous signs.  Animal becomes dull or depressed or may act
drunk, staggering.  It will often vomit.   See vet immediately - antidote should be given - Ethanol or 4-Methylprazole.

Rat Poison (Warfarin being active ingredient) Animal will have a decreased ability to form a blood clot, causing serious bleeding in skin, muscles, lungs, chest
cavity and abdomen.  Induce vomiting (using Hydogen peroxide, 3% solution at a dosage of 1-2 mls per kilogram of body weight.  Dosage may be repeated if
vomiting hasn't occurred after 10 minutes.), and administer activated charcoal.  You will see blue-green vomitus.  Call vet.

Poisons plants:  Autumn crocus, castor bean, daffodil, daphne,  dumb cane, English ivy, Foxglove, Golden chain, Larkspur, Lily of the Valley, Oleander,
Philodendron, Poinsettia, Privet, Rhododendron, Tobacco.

Chocolate:  Dogs may show signs of toxity after eating chocolate.  Ingestion of toxic amounts of choc. causes excessive stimulation of  both the cardiac and
central nervous system.  Theobromine is the toxic ingredient.

SPIDERS:  Severe reactions are limited to two spiders (black/red widow and brown recluse).  Black/red widow's neurotoxin is destructive to nerve tissue.  
Bite of black widow is highly poisons.  Toxin spreads to entire body causing muscle spasms, excessive salivation, convulsion, paralysis.  Obtain anti-venom
quickly.  Brown recluse causes necrosis of skin.
Scorpions:  Scorpions are very poisons.  Use cold packs to slow progress of poison - call vet.

INFO FROM:  POISON CONTROL CENTER     Poison control Center  888 426 4435

Advil, Aleve, Motrin:   Ibuprofen and Naproxen, can cause stomach ulcers and kidney failure.   

Anti-Depressants:  can cause agitation, vocalization, tremors and seizures.

acetaminophen:  Tylenol can cause liver damage and damage to your pet's red blood cells

Methylphenidate (for ADHD):  can dangerously elevate heart rates, blood pressure and body temperature, as well as cause seizures.

Decongestants:  can dangerously elevate heart rates, blood pressure and body temperature, as well as cause seizures.   Common barad names:  Sudafed, Advil
Cold and Sinus, Tylenol Cold, Theraflu, Nyquil.

Vitamin D:  can cause kidney failure.
Bot Eggs found on horse.  Remove with
bot scrapper and worm horse.
NATURAL FUNGUS RECIPE FOR HORSES FROGS/SOLES (THRUSH):  Mix 1 cup water, 1 cup apple cider vinegar and 2 tablespoons of tea tree oil.  
Spray on affected area 3 times per day if possible.
CPR - Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation.
Approach cautiously.  Before giving cpr, make sure dog/cat
is not breathing or heart beating.  Pat or call to the pet.  (Pet should be lying on right side - left side up.
Look in mouth and remove any vomit or bone-like structures that may have been lodged in throat. Extend the head and neck and pull tongue forward.  (Sometimes
an animal will start breathing on its own at this point) (Listen for breathing (put your ear at his nose, or hand on chest ).  If no breathing in 10 seconds begin rescue
Hold mouth closed and forcefully blow through nose 2 breaths - so chest rises. Check for pulse at the femur artery (this is where the back leg joins the body - inside
leg).  If no pulse start chest compressions. (rate of speed - should be 100 times a minute) Kneel behind animal, bring elbow to chest - this is where you will give
compression on chest.  Press down 5 times depressing rib cage 1.5-4 inches depending on size of animal.  Go back to mouth, if still not breathing give 1 breath, 5
compressions. (repeat)  Check for pulse every minute.  If you feel pulse stock depressions.  You may still need to continue breaths.
Continue CPCR until the pulse is palpable or heartbeats are felt and they are strong and regular.

Remember if animal has fallen in water and is unconcious, remove water from lungs first by holding upside down, so water can drain.  Then Start as above.
Cuts and injuries.  Remember even a gentle loving pet can bite when threatened or in pain, so muzzle the pet before giving first aid.  Never muzzle if pet is Muzzle
- use a length of bandage material, fabric, leash, rope or hosiery.  Make a large loop with a half knot in the muzzle material.  Stand behind dog and quickly slip the
loop over the muzzle with the knot at top.  Pull  snug.  Cross the ends under snout and bring them back behind her head.  Tie snuggly behind ears using bow.  For
short snouted dogs like pugs - after tying behind ears but before making bow bring material forward between the dogs eyes and tuck it under the loop that is over
the muzzle.  At top of dogs head tie ends together.

If animal has been
impaled - DO NOT REMOVE OBJECT as this could cause heavy bleeding and shock.  Secure the sharp object in place to minimize movement
inside the pet's body.  Wrap bandage material, fabric, or pieces of clothing around the base of the sharp object where it enters the body and tie or tape the material
in place.  Transport to vet.

There are many injuries that a pet can have but a common one is ear injuries from fights.  Sandwich the ear between pads of gauze, applying direct pressure to the
wound.  When the bleeding slows, keep the pads in place and lay the ear flat against the head.  Wrap bandaging material over the top of the head and under the
throat several times securing the ear against the head.  Be careful it is not too tight that it would restrict breathing.  Use adhesive tape to secure bandage in place.  
Transport to vet for further care from infection.

If you have a smartphone download the pet cpr app., especially if you have already taken the class - good reminders.   It is wonderful and only costs a couple of